Nu Nguyen Thi, Thinh Phi Hong, Son Bui Truong, "Utilizing Coal Bottom Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Vietnam as Partial Replacement of Aggregates in Concrete Pavement", Journal of Engineering, vol. 2019, Article ID 3903097, 11 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3903097 Learn More
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In Vietnam, a large amount of coal bottom ash (CBA) is being discharged from thermal power plants and has been making serious environmental pollution. It is essential to utilize the CBA to reduce environmental pollution. So, this paper presents a series of experimental studies in the laboratory using CBA as a partial replacement of aggregates in concrete pavement for rural roads. In mixing concrete, the CBA is utilized to replace 15, 30, and 100% aggregates. The design of the composition must achieve the technical requirement of M-30 grade of concrete. A total 351 of specimens were tested on workability of fresh concrete, abrasion, compressive strength, and flexural tensile strength in order to achieve the technical requirement of concrete pavement for rural roads. Based on the experimental results, in order to achieve the required compressive strength, An Khanh CBA concrete uses more content of cement and water than control concrete; Cao Ngan CBA is only utilized to replace 15% aggregates, and Cao Ngan CBA concrete also uses more cement and water than control concrete. It also shown that the amount of water and cement content depend on types of CBA and the water amount and cement content of CBA concrete are larger than those of control concrete. The advantage of mixture CBA concrete is abrasion, and flexural tensile strength achieved the value as per the technical requirement
In recent years, Vietnam has been rapidly developing coal thermal power plants because of low investment cost and abundance of material resources. Currently, there are about 21 thermal power plants operating with a total capacity of 14,848 MW, consuming about 45 million tons of coal per year and discharging more than 16 million tons of coal ash (fly ash and CBA) per year. As expected, by 2025, there will be about 47 thermal power plants with a capacity of about 26,000 MW, these plants will consume about 63 million tons of coal per year, and the total amount of ash will exceed 30 million tons per year [1 Vietnamese Government, The Approval of Revisions to the National Power Development Plan from 2011 to 2020 with Visions Extended to 2030, Vietnamese Government, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2016. See in References ]. In fact, there is about 20–30% consumption of total coal ash, mainly fly ash, and CBA is not used in any form and is still stored in the ash dumps located in the plant. So, there is so much of CBA in the ash dumps and it leads to a series of environmental pollution problems such as air, water, and soil pollution and land appropriation for ash dumps. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on utilizing coal bottom ash for the protection of the environment and sustainable development
The ash from coal thermal power plants consists of two components: fly ash is extracted from the boiler flue gases and CBA is collected from the bottom of the furnaces [2 J. Provis, A. Palomo, and C. Shi, “Advances in understanding alkali-activated materials,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 78, pp. 110–125, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar See in References ]. CBA is about 20 ÷ 30% of the total coal ash and is used as sand in concretes, cement replacement, road base and subbase, embankment of backfill material, and structural or disposed of in landfills [3 M. Singh and R. Siddique, “Effect of coal bottom ash as partial replacement of sand on properties of concrete,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 72, pp. 20–32, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar See in References –5 S. A. Mangi, M. H. W. Ibrahim, N. Jamaluddin, M. F. Arshad, S. A. Memon, and S. Shahidan, “Effects of grinding process on the properties of the coal bottom ash and cement paste,” Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 1, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar See in References ]
Numerous studies have been completed on chemical composition and physical properties of CBA. The chemical properties of CBA are mainly composed of silica, alumina, and iron oxide with percentage composition of 42.7–61.8%, 9.31–26.7%, and 5.8–25.03%, respectively [4 M. A. B. Mudamad, “The potential of bottom ash as fine aggregate replacement in concrete,” Tech. Rep., Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia, 2010, A Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of Degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering. View at: Google Scholar See in References , 6 A. U. Abubakar and K. S. Baharudin, “Properties of concrete using tanjung bin power plant coal bottom ash and fly ash,” International Journal Of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology (IJSCET), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 56–69, 2012. View at: Google Scholar See in References ]. CBA can mostly be classified as ASTM Class F ash, and some CBA can be classified as ASTM Class C ash. The CBA is physically coarse, porous, granular, greyish, and incombustible materials [7 M. S. H. M. Sani, F. Muftah, and Z. Muda, “The properties of special concrete using washed bottom ash (WBA) as partial sand replacement,” International Journal Of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology (IJSCET), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 65–76, 2010. View at: Google Scholar See in References ]. The particle size ranges from fine gravel to fine sand [6 A. U. Abubakar and K. S. Baharudin, “Properties of concrete using tanjung bin power plant coal bottom ash and fly ash,” International Journal Of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology (IJSCET), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 56–69, 2012. View at: Google Scholar See in References ], but the grain size occurred in a different range. The specific gravity of CBA is low, ranges from 1.39 to 2.41, and is affected by the carbon content
CBA can be replaced as partial fine aggregates in concrete. In case of using CBA as partial replacement of fine aggregates, the workability of concrete is lower than the workability of control concrete [8 P. Aggarwal, Y. Aggarwal, and S. M. Gupta, “Effect of bottom ash as replacement of bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete,” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2007. View at: Google Scholar See in References , 9 A. I. F. A. Maliki, S. Shahidan, N. Ali et al., “Compressive and tensile strength for concrete containing coal bottom ash,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 271, Article ID 012055, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar See in References ] and the change of workability is very different according to the type of CBA. The density reduced in concrete by replacing CBA for fine aggregates [10 K. N. V. Kumar, B. R. Hemalatha, and S. B. Anadinni, “Study on strength of concrete using fly ash and bottom ash as a partial replacement for cement and sand,” International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR), vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 2344–2335, 2015. View at: Google Scholar See in References , 11 M. P. Kadam and Y. D. Patil, “Effect of coal bottom ash as sand replacement on the properties of concrete with different W/C ratio,” International Journal Of Advanced Technology In Civil Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2013. View at: Google Scholar See in References ]
Surface mines (sometimes called strip mines) were the source of about 62% of the coal mined in the United States in 2019. These mining operations remove the soil and rock above coal deposits, or seams. The largest surface mines in the United States are in Wyoming's Powder River Basin, where coal deposits are close to the surface and are up to 70 feet thick
Mountaintop removal and valley fill mining has affected large areas of the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia and Kentucky. In this form of coal extraction, the tops of mountains are removed using explosives. This technique changes the landscape, and streams are sometimes covered with rock and dirt. The water draining from these filled valleys may contain pollutants that can harm aquatic wildlife downstream. Although mountaintop mining has existed since the 1970s, its use became more widespread and controversial beginning in the 1990s
Some electric power plants use scrubbers (flue gas desulfurization equipment) to reduce the amount of sulfur exiting their smokestacks. The power plants use electrostatic precipitators or baghouses to remove particulates and heavy metals from the smoke
Methane gas that occurs in coal deposits can explode if it concentrates in underground mines. This coalbed methane must be vented out of mines to make mines safer places to work. In 2018, methane emissions from coal mining and abandoned coal mines accounted for about 11% of total U.S. methane emissions and about 1% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (based on global warming potential). Some mines capture and use or sell the coalbed methane extracted from mines
In the past, fly ash was released into the air through the smokestack, but laws now require that most emissions of fly ash be captured by pollution control devices. In the United States, fly ash and bottom ash are generally stored near power plants or placed in landfills. Pollution leaching from coal ash storage and landfills into groundwater and several large impoundments of coal ash that ruptured are environmental concerns.
The coal industry has found several ways to reduce sulfur and other impurities from coal. The industry has also found more effective ways of cleaning coal after it is mined, and some coal consumers use low sulfur coal.
BeishanLaos Southeast Asia newgold minesandmakersell. Gold in earlySoutheast Asia- OpenEdition. 3 There is some evidence of ancientgold mininginSoutheastAsia– ancient shafts have been reported in Central Vietnam at Kham Duc (pers. comm. local villagers), an area which is linked by the river to the protohistoric sites of Go Ma Voi, and at Go Mun, 65 km southwest (Nguyen Kim Dung et al
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The environmental challenges from coal mining include coal mine accidents, land subsidence, damage to the water environment, mining waste disposal and air pollution. These are either environmental pollution or landscape change. A conceptual framework for solving mine environmental issues is proposed. Clean processes, or remediation measures, are designed to address environmental pollution. Restoration measures are proposed to handle landscape change. The total methane drainage from 56 Chinese high methane concentration coal mines is about 101.94 million cubic meters. Of this methane, 19.32 million, 35.58 million and 6.97 million cubic meters are utilized for electricity generation, civil fuel supplies and other industrial purposes, respectively. About 39% of the methane is emitted into the atmosphere. The production of coal mining wastes can be decreased 10% by reuse of mining wastes as underground fills, or by using the waste as fuel for power plants or for raw material to make bricks or other infrastructure materials. The proper use of mined land must be decided in terms of local physical and socio-economical conditions. In European countries more than 50% of previously mined lands are reclaimed as forest or grass lands. However, in China more than 70% of the mined lands are reclaimed for agricultural purposes because the large population and a shortage of farmlands make this necessary. Reconstruction of rural communities or native residential improvement is one environmental problem arising from mining. We suggest two ways to reconstruct a farmer's house in China
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