(TIME, July 10, 1950) -- "We are not at war," said the President of the U.S last week. Then he went on to explain. The U.S., said Harry Truman, was engaged in a police action. A "bunch of bandits" had attacked the Republic of Korea -- a government established by the United Nations -- and the Security Council had asked U.N. members to suppress this bandit raid. That was what the U.S. was doing. "We hope we have acted in the cause of peace -- there is no other reason for the action we have taken," said Truman. Learn More
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What was this new thing the U.S. was in? World War III? Could Armageddon begin with so feeble a fanfare as the muffled Battle of Korea? Could the push-button war of the physicists start among the grass roofs of a land where men had hardly caught up with Galileo? Was this the place and was this the way in which Marx and Jefferson came to final grips?
The Communist intention to destroy what order existed in the rest of the world had been plainly published and implacably pursued. The U.S. had first ignored and then underestimated this challenge. In Europe, the U.S. had partially met the Communist threat by gifts of goods, and promises of military aid if the Red threat became an all-out war.
In Asia, this had not been enough. In Asia, the props of ordered freedom were just not strong enough to withstand the Communist pressure. So China fell while the U.S. argued about the political morals of Chiang Kai-shek and consoled itself with babble about the hopeless "complex and the reality harder & harder to ignore. The reality was: Communism was winning the victory and might never have to resort to all-out war.
By decision of the U.S. and the U.N., the free world would now try to strike back, deal with the limited crises through which Communism was advancing. Russia's latest aggression had united the U.S. -- and the U.N. -- as nothing else could.
Already the Communists had paid for their attack on Korea; when Truman said "I have ordered the Seventh Fleet" to Formosa, he denied Communism a rich strategic prize that had been in its grasp. The fact that Douglas MacArthur, who has long understood the Communist intentions in Asia, was defending Korea meant that the Reds would not get that country cheaply.
Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability
Photosynthesis is a representative example of organic conversion in the environment1. Microalgae, which have the capacity for mass storage of TAG (triacylglycerol), are a suitable model of organic conversion2. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to investigate various fundamental biological processes, including lipid metabolism3. Studies have recently been conducted to identify factors, inducing organic conversion, for optimization of lipid production4. These factors include chemical and environmental cues such as nitrogen deprivation, temperature and pH stresses5,6,7. However, these conventional stresses have a limitation. Their factors have relatively low conversion rate compared to mechanical stress, ranging from one day to as high as over5,6,7,8. Moreover, long-term stress could have negative effects on cell viability and growth, leading to low lipid production efficiency9,10. More importantly, media conditions readily change during cell culture, which aggravates the process, leading to low robustness and controllability
Mechanical stresses are possible cues that trigger biological metabolism11. Some studies have revealed that shear stress and compression stress lead to changes in microalgal metabolism8,12. This is especially true for stress induced changes in lipid metabolism, which have been actively studied and shown to occur via mechanotransduction transmitted from the membrane distortion of the cell surface13. However, hydrodynamic stresses such as shear stress transmit mechanical signaling indirectly to cells through medium, resulting in difficulty in controlling the cell membrane distortion in the temporal aspect and intensity of stress. We recently showed that direct compression-induced membrane distortion caused microalgae to very rapidly synthesize free fatty acids and convert them into TAG in a microfluidic device8. The compression inducer is very robust and controllable because the stress does not vary and is easily manageable, unlike chemical inducers. However, a scaled-up system must be developed to enable production of free fatty acids, lipids or biodiesel on an industrial scale
This study was conducted to develop a conceptual large-scale system to enable compression-based synthesis of free fatty acids and high-speed conversion into TAG. Polyurethane is an elastic polymer. The elastomeric beads could be fabricated from this polyurethane elastomer. The fabricated polyurethane beads had a specific physical property that beads were easily compressed and restored to their original form when the compressive force was removed. Using this restoring force of beads, it could give a compressive stress to the cells indirectly. In other words, when the compressed beads were restored in limited spatial extent, the cells adjacent to the beads got a compressive force. The highly elastic polyurethane beads made it possible to exert compressive stress, triggering lipid metabolism without cell loss and death during the process
The MDLP system was designed by applying the principle of mechanotransduction that the lipid accumulation was induced by membrane distortion of the cell, and then fabricated to induce the organic conversion of microalgae (Fig. 1). When the compressed beads and microalgae were mixed in the reactor, the inflated beads occupied the pre-vacant space, which transmitted compressive force to cells equally via the spatial dispersion of the force. Operation of the prototype device was confirmed based on the finding that it went through the successful process of compression, inoculation, de-compression and harvest step. About 60 × 106 cells were seeded in one cycle of process. If cell is pre-seeded and compressed, lots of cells would be expelled with the media. This is why the beads were first compressed and then, cells were seeded and compressed by the inflating bead force. The spherical and elastic polyurethane beads became distorted by the compression force and were restored by absorbing surrounding media. SEM images were analyzed to understand the physical properties of this PU bead. As shown in Fig. 2c, there were countless microscopic pores on the surfaces of the beads, which allowed liquids to enter and exit the pores of the beads. There were also empty spaces within the bead that could absorb a certain amount of liquid. These findings confirmed that the prototype of the device could actualize the process shown in Supplementary Fig. S1
Overall description of process design and components. (a) Initial state. (b) Microbeads compression. (c) Inoculation of microalgae. (d) Microbeads de-compression for induction of mechanotransduction to microalgae. (e) Microalgal harvesting
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, DPR Korea or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital and largest city. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok (known as the Yalu in China) and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. Nevertheless, North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. Both North Korea and South Korea became members of the United Nations in 1991.
In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviets and the south occupied by the Americans. Negotiations on reunification failed, and in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War (1950–1953). The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire, but no peace treaty was signed.
North Korea officially describes itself as a self-reliant, socialist state and formally holds elections. Various media outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family. The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972.Template:Sfn The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are subsidized or state-funded.Template:Sfn From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, and the population continues to suffer malnutrition. North Korea follows Songun, or "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons.
Script error: No such module "Labelled list hatnote". The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo (also spelled Koryŏ). The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (Koguryŏ) in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, and thus inherited its name, which was pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon (조선) in North Korea, and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Template:Lang/Template:Lang Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Template:Audio) as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controlled the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is commonly called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, which is officially called the Republic of Korea.
Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy primarily for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun (Liberation Army) operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces. Some of them took part in allied action in China and parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who later became the first leader of North Korea.
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