Sugarcane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It is mainly grown for sugar and sugary production. It is an important source of income and employment for the farming community of the country. It also forms essential item for industries like sugar, chip board, paper, barrages, confectionery, uses in chemicals, plastics, paints, synthetics, fiber, insecticides and detergents. Sugarcane production in the country has increased over time. In 1988, the area under sugarcane was 878 x 103 hectares which increased to 886 x 103 hectares in 1992 and sugarcane production increased for 36976 x 103 tons in 1988 to 38059 x 103 tons in 1992. Despite expansion in production over years, increase in the productivity per unit of area has been very low in Pakistan. The average sugarcane production in the country required static between 45-50 tons/ha, which is very much low compared to the cane production by other countries. The average yield of sugarcane in the world is around 60 metric tons/ha, while India and Egypt are getting around 66 tons and 105 tons/has, respectively. In this way, Egypt with highest cane yield in the world is getting about 142 per cent high-yield than Pakistan. India with almost similar soil and climatic conditions is obtaining about 53 per cent higher cane yield than Pakistan. As it is one of the cash crops of the country, therefore, efforts should be made to improve its productivity. As a result of these efforts, substantial improvement can take place in its yield. Improved seed production, quality control and distribution depends largely upon the availability of skilled and competent local manpower, which is present in insufficient in most developing countries. Learn More
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In order to increase the production of sugar cane several steps were taken by the Govt. and the sugar mill association to help formers. In past several reports/research work to increase the production were published on different process which include chemical composition as well as agricultural reforms/steps to increase the recovery and %age yield. Here in this report information is published which can guide local farmers to evaluate their cultivation system and improve it as per requirements.
Sugarcane is an important industrial and cash crop in Pakistan and in many countries of the world. It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world in a range of climates from hot dry environment near sea level to cool and moist environment at higher elevations. Besides sugar production, sugarcane produces numerous valuable byproducts like, alcohol used by pharmaceutical industry, ethanol used as a fuel, bagasse used for paper, and chip board manufacturing and press mud used as a rich source of organic matter and nutrients for crop production
Pakistan occupies an important position in cane producing countries of the world. It ranks at the fifth position in cane acreage and production and almost 15th position in sugar production. A comparison of cane yield and sugar recovery in some cane growing countries is given in the table below
ii) Irrigated arid sub-tropical zone between 240 N latitude to 260 N latitude, iii) and temperate zone of northern Punjab and N.W.F.P. between 320 N latitude to 340 N latitude.
Sugarcane is grown on an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan. The Punjab shares 62 %, Sindh 26 % and N.W.F.P. shares 16 % of the total area. The national average cane yield (~ 47 t ha-1) is far below the existing potential (Table 2). In respect of cane yield Sindh with 53 t ha-1 is the leading province followed by N.W.F.P. (45 t ha-1) and Punjab (40 t ha-1)
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Companies increase market share through innovation, strengthening customer relationships, smart hiring practices, and acquiring competitors. A company's market share is the percentage it controls the total market for its products and services.
Market share is calculated by measuring the percentage of sales or percentage of units a company has in the overall market. Using the percentage of sales method, if a company has $1 million in annual sales and the total sales for the year in its industry is $100 million, the company's market share is 1%. Under the percentage of units method, a company that sells 50,000 units annually in an industry where 5 million units are sold per year also has a market share of 1%.
A higher market share puts companies at a competitive advantage. Companies with high market share often receive better prices from suppliers, as their larger order volumes increase their buying power. Also, increased market share and greater production go hand-in-hand, with the latter decreasing a company's cost to produce an individual unit due to economies of scale.
Innovation is one method by which a company may increase market share. When a firm brings to market a new technology its competitors have yet to offer, consumers wishing to own the technology buy it from that company, even if they previously did business with a competitor. Many of those consumers become loyal customers, which adds to the company's market share and decreases market share for the company from which they switched.
By strengthening customer relationships, companies protect their existing market share by preventing current customers from jumping ship when a competitor rolls out a hot new offer. Better still, companies can grow market share using the same simple tactic, as satisfied customers frequently speak of their positive experience to friends and relatives who then become new customers. Gaining market share via word of mouth increases a company's revenues without concomitant increases in marketing expenses.
Companies with the highest market share in their industries almost invariably have the most skilled and dedicated employees. Bringing the best employees on board reduces expenses related to turnover and training, and enables companies to devote more resources to focusing on their core competencies. Offering competitive salaries and benefits is one proven way to attract the best employees; however, employees in the 21st century also seek intangible benefits such as flexible schedules and casual work environments.
North-West of Pakistan is bestowed with medicinal plant resources due to diverse geographical and habitat conditions. The traditional use of plants for curing various diseases forms an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The study was carried out to document medicinal plants used in Frontier Region (FR) Bannu, an area affected by the “War on Terror”
Fieldwork was carried out in four different seasons (spring, autumn, summer and winter) from March 2012 to February 2013. Data on medicinal plants was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaires from 250 respondents. The voucher specimens were collected, processed and identified following standard methods
Of the 107 species of ethnomedicinal plants reported, fifty percent species are herbaceous. The majority of the reported species were wild (55%) but a substantial proportion are cultivated (29%). For most of the plant species (34%), leaves are the most commonly used part in the preparation of ethnomedicines. The most common use of species is for carminative purposes (14 species), with the next most common use being for blood purification (11 species). The main methods used in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes involves grinding and boiling, and nearly all the remedies are taken orally along with ingredients such as water, milk or honey for ease of ingestion. Traditional healers prepare plant remedies using one or more plants. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) between the age of local people and the number of plants known to them, which indicates that in the coming 20 years, an approximate decrease of 75% in the indigenous knowledge may be expected
Traditional medicines are important to the livelihoods of rural communities in the region affected by the Global war on Terrorism. The medicinal recipes are indigenous; however, there is a threat to their future use on account of rapid modernization and terrorist activities. Documentation of medicinal plants and recipes may help in the conservation of the regional indigenous medicinal knowledge for future generations and to provide a baseline for further studies
Plants have been used as folk medicine all over the world for centuries  and indigenous communities have developed their own specific knowledge on plant resources, uses, management and conservation . Ethnomedicinal treatment is not merely a medical system but part of a culture . Today, around 25% of all prescribed medicines in the developed world contain ingredients derived from medicinal plants . It has been estimated that herbal medicines are used by more than 80% of the world’s population in developing countries to meet their primary healthcare needs . The traditional use of plants and plant resources is rapidly increasing due to their minimal side-effects and (affordable) accessibility, and because they sometimes represent the only source of healthcare available to poorer communities . However, the key issue in the current era is the loss of indigenous medicinal plant and preparation knowledge, which can serve as a guideline on plant-based therapeutic research for many scientists around the world
Pakistan has a diverse flora containing a total of 1,572 genera and 5,521 species, most of which are confined to the Hindukush, Himalaya and Karakorum regions [7, 8]. People collect about 600 medicinal plant species as one of the major non-timber forest products (NTFPs) . Of these species, 500 are commonly used in traditional healthcare practices and 350 are traded for millions of US dollars to national and international markets . Twenty-eight leading herbal manufacturing units use medicinal plants for making various preparations, which include 75 crude herbal drugs that are extensively exported. About 60,000 traditional practitioners (Hakeems) in rural and remote areas utilize medicinal plants as household remedies for curing several diseases . Local communities have centuries of traditional knowledge and practice relating to plants of their regions that have been transmitted from generation to generation . About 84% of the country’s population was dependent on traditional medicines in the early 1950’s ; however, the practice is now confined to remote areas 
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