Spiral concentrators are one of the most common gravity processing methods extensively used for the concentration of mineral based on their density, particle size and shape. As for every gravity concentration technique, particle size plays a major role in the separation mechanisms within the spiral. Thus, in addition to classical performance indices, such as grade or recovery, partition curves are also a valuable criterion for quantifying the separation efficiency. In this paper, we study and model the influence of wash water additions and pulp density on heavy and gangue mineral partition curves using kaolin residue enriched in heavy minerals and via a design of experiment (DOE). The results show that coarse particle size recovery curves are affected by a systematic decrease, which is mainly impacted by wash water additions. Partition curve modelling through particle size distribution and DOE regression model fitting allow a better understanding of the effect of wash water on the aforementioned phenomenon for each mineral fraction. Gangue minerals are more affected by this phenomenon, which has been interpreted as a result of the Bagnold effect and secondary flows within the spiral. A decrease in the coarse particle recovery represents a significant source of losses, and a better understanding of this phenomenon is necessary to avoid these losses Learn More
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Chawley was well suited for the local production of lime and bricks because of the occurence there of the materials needed. It stood on strata of Corailian limestone and Kimmeridge Clay. The availability in the parish of limestone rubble fore-stalled for many centuries the use of brick in Cumnor, while traditional thatch and Stonestield slate were preferred to clay tiles
Bricks and tiles had of course been made in the region since Romano- British times. By the mid-14th century tiles were selling for 2s 6d a thousand in Oxford. In the 18th century a tax was imposed upon both products but removed from tiles in 1833 and from bricks in 1850. By 1860 there were 69 brickworks in Oxfordshire
It may have been the incentive of tax abolition that moved John Neale, a farmer at Chawley, to start making bricks and tiles. He is first mentioned being involved in this trade in 1846. The 1851 census shows John Neale, born in Cumnor, married to Elizabeth, farmer of 70 acres and kiinman, employing 7 labourers
Bricks had been used in the rear extension of Cumnor vicarage and earlier at Red House Farm and a home in Botley. Nevertheless a big demand did not arise until early Victorian times, when the Great Western Railway's arrival stimulated a building boom in West Oxford
Elizabeth Neale begs to inform her friends and the public in general that she intends, with the assistance of her son, to continue the business carried on by her late husband; and hopes, by strict attention to business and punctuality to orders, to merit their patronage and support'
The 1876 O.S. map shows a small clay pit just across the road and another nearby. The kiln was probably a Dutch kiln in which bricks and tiles were fired together. There were lime kilns along Chawley Hurst lane and another clay pit was being opened up nearer Cumnor Hurst. The latter exploited a 40 f oot layer of Kimmeridge Clay. It was easy to dig and contained 8% of bituminous materials which burnt during firing. Chawley was one of the last, and largest, works to exploit this particular clay
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