Introduction Historical Perspective System Complexity The Hillslopes The Streams The Lakes and Reservoirs The Estuaries Influence of Land Use Conservation Management Systems Concluding Remarks References The Effects of Fine Sediment on Aquatic Habitat: A Comprehensive Bibliography Learn More
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The issue of sediment in aquatic environments has been a topic of concern for many decades. During the nineteen-thirties, erosion became a national issue because of the dust bowl and as a result the Soil Erosion Service was established. Since the nineteen-thirties, the study of sediment erosion, transport, deposition, and intrusion has increased exponentially in the United States. Considering all of the past and current research, it is difficult to focus on essential research, but with limited resources it is imperative to refine the topics and prioritize the necessary areas of study. The same scoping is also true for treatment practices. The best and most effective treatment should be used on the most critical habitat. Establishing this systematic prioritization is a challenging but substantive endeavor
One of the first well-distributed articles published was written by M.M. Ellis in 1936. Ellis covered many aspects of the effects of silt in aquatic systems, including light penetration, temperature adjustment, electrolytes, bottom conditions, and retention of organic matter. For sediment intrusion into streambeds, Ellis (1936) reported, from experimental data, very high mortality rates for freshwater mussels living in gravel-bedded or sand-bedded channels. These findings have been empirically supported by hundreds of subsequent studies. Only one study, written by Ward (1938a, 1938b), has refuted the effects of fine sediment on the health of aquatic ecosystems and this study has been heavily criticized in subsequent studies
A substantiating study was conducted in 1943 by Shaw and Maga; this study investigated the effects of silt on the survival of salmon fry. The experiment was conducted in a flume with control groups. Salmon eggs were placed in nests and mining silt was introduced into the water supply periodically. Their results showed an average decrease of 64 percent in survival rates with a range of 80 percent to 16 percent. Subsequent studies were modeled after this laboratory experiment with very similar results
The nineteen-fifties brought more experiments on survival rates. Land-use effects were being considered with an emphasis on logging. That approach refined previous knowledge but did not propose treatments for excess sediment in aquatic systems. Logging was still relatively unrestricted and economic concerns were a priority over the environment
The nineteen-sixties resulted in more research and the idea of watershed management related to aquatic health was extensively explored. Many pioneers in the field -- such as McNeil, Shapely, Phillips, Platts, Bjornn, and others -- were establishing themselves as the experts. Since there is now such a large volume of material available, this paper will emphasize the review of theories, concepts, and established practices that are representative of the field as a whole. This methodology, although expedient, will most certainly leave out some pertinent information and practices. The attached bibliography (Appendix: The Effects of Fine Sediment on Aquatic Habitat: A Comprehensive Bibliography) should be consulted as a more thorough representation of where this field of study has gone and is going
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